Ethiopia is a landlocked country in the Horn of Africa and the continent’s second-most populous, with 102 million people; the life expectancy at birth is 63 years (male) and 67 years (female). From health indicators among the lowest in Africa in the 1990s, Ethiopia made substantial progress towards achieving the MDGs. The Health Sector Transformation Plan (HSTP) 2015/16-2019/20 fits within Ethiopia’s broader Second Growth and Transformation Plan, and is also the first phase of the 20-year health sector strategy called ‘Envisioning Ethiopia’s Path to Universal Health Care through strengthening of Primary Health Care’. The flagship Health Extension Program delivers cost-effective basic services to all Ethiopians free of charge. This has improved the utilization of health services by linking community and health facilities, particularly health centres. However, out-of-pocket spending remains high. The HSTP IV has set a target of increasing the proportion of people enrolled in social health insurance. You can access important country documents by clicking here.